MCQ 26 Dec 2023

Daily practice questions for CLAT - (26 December 2023)

Before 1997, most UN development agencies pursued a ‘basic needs’ approach: They identified basic requirements of beneficiaries and either supported initiatives to improve service delivery or advocated for their fulfillment. UNFPA and its partners now work to fulfil the rights of people, rather than the needs of beneficiaries. It’s an important distinction, because an unfulfilled need leads to dissatisfaction, while a right that is not respected leads to a violation. Redress or reparation can be legally and legitimately claimed. A human rights-based approach also seeks to reinforce the capacities of duty bearers (usually governments) to respect, protect and guarantee these rights. It aims to address development complexities holistically, taking into consideration the connections between individuals and the systems of power or influence. And it endeavors to create dynamics of accountability. This is a two-way street: Individuals and communities need to be fully informed about their rights and to participate in decisions that affect them. Governments and other duty bearers often need assistance to develop the capacity, the resources and the political will to fulfil their commitments to human rights. The rights-based approach deals not just with outcomes but also with how those outcomes are achieved. It recognizes that people are actors in their own development, rather than passive recipients of services. Informing, educating and empowering them are essential. Their participation is central, not only to ensure they have ownership over the programme, but also to sustain progress. A rights-based approach develops the capacity of duty-bearers to meet their obligations and encourages rights holders to claim their rights. Governments have three levels of obligation: to respect, protect and fulfil every right. To respect a right means refraining from interfering with the enjoyment of the right. To protect a right means to prevent other parties from interfering with the enjoyment of rights. To fulfil a right means to take active steps to put in place, laws, policies, institutions and procedures, including the allocation of resources, to enable people to enjoy their rights.

Question1:- Which of the following can be the features of Human Rights based approach?
  • A. People are important for their own development and not passive recipients of commodities and services.
  • B. Reinforcement of all duty- bearers including government to respect, protect and guarantee these rights.
  • C. To review a fragile government performance, national accountability systems need to be overlooked.
  • D. Both A & B
Answer is A is correct. option a and b are correct and can be corroborated from the passage. The passage states- “The rights-based approach deals not just with outcomes but also with how those outcomes are achieved”. The passage also states that- “Governments and other duty bearers often need assistance to develop the capacity, the resources and the political will to fulfil their commitments to human rights”. Hence, A is the correct option.
Question2:- The passage talks of the all the integral parts of human rights, except:
  • A. Participation
  • B. Empowerment
  • C. Employment
  • D. Non- discrimination
Answer is C is correct. option C is the correct answer because the passage supports participation, empowerment and non- discrimination but not employment. Hence, C is the correct option.
Question3:- Which of the following is coherent to “basic needs” approach?
  • A. Unequal power relations in the society can lead to and can cause liability.
  • B. The munificence of the government should be enjoyed by the public who can claim to be the beneficiaries.
  • C. The basic need approach concerns the power imbalance between the government and the beneficiaries.
  • D. One that calls for a direct communication between the groups and the government.
Answer is B is correct. option (B) describes the people as passive beneficiaries as stated in the passage. Option A, C and D all saw these options with the rights-based approach. Hence, B is the correct option.
Question4:- If the water pipes in your area are bursting, according to the rights-based approach what will you do?
  • A. Analyse the water pipeline project and the capacity and the services it has provided to people.
  • B. Work with the water board on direct distribution of water to the local community.
  • C. Involve police to seek help and provide rehabilitation of the pipes.
  • D. To move the affected communities and build understanding of the issues faced.
Answer is D is correct. options A, B and C reflects a need-based approach where citizens are not involved. Option (D) tried to understand the citizens and worked with them in association reflecting a rights-based approach. Hence, D is the correct option.
Question5:- While necessary policies are being implemented, a large section of children in our society are neglected and are a marginalized group. A human right based approach would mean:
i. We must pay particular attention to the protection of their rights.
ii. We must pay attention so that children because of their age are not discriminated against in the services or opportunities provided to them.
iii. We must ensure that children based on their different identities- their gender, ethnicity, religion or any ground- should be taken into consideration.
  • A. i and ii
  • B. ii and iii
  • C. i and iii
  • D. i, ii and iii
Answer is D is correct. Option D is correct. All the statements above uphold and respect the rights of children and take consideration of their rights and dignity. Hence, D is the correct option.